Comparative Pronunciation Chart

The Pinyin Used in Books on this Website

Tone Marks

   Inserting a mark for the first tone seems to clutter up the page and make it more difficult to read. So, on this site the neutral tone is marked rather than the first tone. Also there is a hyphen between each syllable for ease of reading for beginners.

The second tone is marked as usual: da2 

The third tone: da5 and the fourth: da3 

The neutral tone is marked: da/  

Sample Page

Comparative Chart

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The umlaut 

   The "u" following j, q, x, and y always has an umlaut, e.g., ju, qu, xu, yu. Whenever the "u" following "l" and "n" has an umlaut, it is represented by a "v", e.g., nv, nve, lv, lve.